Kidney cancer is a malignant tumour developed from the kidney cells. Malignant kidney tumours account for 2-5% of malignant cancers in adults. Men are affected twice as often as women. The cause of kidney cancer is unknown, however, some genetic factors and damages of the kidney cell DNA caused by e.g. cigarette smoking, mutagens or environmental factors are taken into consideration. It is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 45, however, recently, the reduction of the age limit of people who are diagnosed with kidney cancer have been observed, which is affected by the growth of influence of the environmental carcinogenic factors, as well as the spread and constant improvement of diagnosing possibilities.
Cancer of the liver is also known as Hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the type of cancer that affects hepatic
(liver) functions and is one of the most life threatening type of cancers. Majority of the cause of this disease results from liver damage that results from chronic exposure to drugs, alcohol and malnutrition, also known as Liver Cirrhosis. The liver is composed of various cells such as the hepatocytes that make up about 80% of the liver, Therefore, Most of the primary liver tumors affect the liver tissue and compromise most liver functions. The liver is responsible for detoxification of the body.
Without it, the body will be poisoned by the things we ingest inside out systems. The liver is also responsible for the storage of essential body fats and carbohydrates. Without these functions, there will be no way to metabolize energy to maintain body functions. Sometimes, when people talk about liver cancer, they would often confuse it for a kind of cancer that has spread to the liver which is also known as metastasis. Thus this terminology actually talks about either secondary cancer that has spread to the liver or Hepatocellular cancer, which has originated from the liver itself.
The risk factors that eventually lead to hepatic cancer would include excessive or chronic drinking, smoking, heredity to other types of cancers, hepatitis and malnutrition. Unfortunately, the prognosis of this type of cancer, when detected in the late stages, is very poor. Other uncommon risk factors that agitate the growth of cancer cells in the liver would also include a potent carcinogen such as Aflatoxin B1. This type of carcinogen is a by-product of a mold called Aspergillus flavus. This mold thrives in foods such as peanuts, rice, soy beans and other crops. Consuming products made from Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s) can also induce cancer.
This disease can be detected through the use of a tumor marker also known as alpha-feto protein which is found in the blood. It can also be detected through the use of x-rays but it can only be detected during the latent period of the disease which is difficult to treat. Liver biopsies (removal of a tissue) can also be done to detect if the tissues removed are, in fact, malignant.
More often than not, an ablative form of surgery is needed to remove the diseased part of the liver. This type of treatment can be life threatening as well. Because of the fact that the liver is so immuno-compromised, ablative surgeries are difficult to tolerate. Moreover, due to the damage inflicted on the liver, the patients are more likely to have bleeding tendencies that will make them prone to shock.
The only way to prevent liver cancer is to live a healthy lifestyle. Prevent all sorts of poisons that can compromise the liver. This can help reduce the risks, thus making the liver cancer free.
The bladder is the muscular organ found in the urinary system that acts as a structure for storing urine as it gets filtered from the blood by the urinary system. It can actually expand many times its size with the incoming urine. The muscularity of the tissue is rendered by the three layers of cells that are found in the bladder covering. These specialized bladder cells are called transitional epithelium. The layers are the ones that prevent the absorption of urine back into the body fluids. These cells when affected by the cancerous growth are called bladder cancer. The cancer arising in these cells can be seen as in different stages of development according to the layers of the cells that are affected.
The bladder cancer is affecting almost millions of persons every year. They are of many types, may be transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma or squamous cell carcinoma. These types of carcinomic cancers are the most generally occurring types of bladder cancer. This cancer also is characterised by many symptoms that can be considerably easily identified and like all other cancers it is best treated when done at an early stage of the infection. There may also be the other symptoms associated with abnormalities occurring in other organs due to the metastasis of the cancerous cells in the bladder. This stage of the cancer is most developed one and requires more treatment techniques to ensure effective cure. But when treated initially the cancer can be completely and wholly removed, though not guaranteed it will not reoccur. The main aspect of metastasis is that the nearby organs are affected and when left untreated the whole organs of the body like liver, lungs, and kidney are badly affected.
The symptoms are the ones that we need to be aware of to keep it at bay. The symptoms of the bladder cancer can be more definitive than with other types of cancer because of the fact that the abnormalities with the bladder affects the whole urinary system and thus leads to a change in the behaviour of entire process. It is the store house of urine and when it gets disoriented then there occurs many impacts like frequent urination, blood along with urine… etc.
The treatment methods are of many types and the doctor will prescribe you the appropriate treatment for you based upon the physical state of you body. The most effective treatment is mostly the most suited one for you. But as seen with all types of cancer the best treatment is always got when it is done at an early stage. The bladder especially is of vital importance the fatality rate is also high when bladder cancer is concerned. It is always best to take the preventive policy rather than treatment because there is always a chance of affecting vital organs like kidney when abnormal bladder is concerned, because all the organs surrounding it are responsible for vital function of urination.